China is a major food importer. Cheap grain hurts farmers, expensive rice hurts people. China’s food security is in a double squeeze, costs are rising and prices are falling, so the sustainable development of agriculture is a double squeeze. At present, China’s grain has the purchase price of grain to protect it. Domestic grain is higher than that of foreign countries, and grain processing and trade enterprises have expanded their scale to achieve profitability. Therefore, more and more enterprises are turning to foreign countries. The price of most agricultural products in the international market has fallen, which is very much lower than the domestic price. On July 28, 2015 (last week), the domestic and foreign grain prices: From October 2014 to May 2015, the international market corn dropped by 6%, and rice dropped by 4%. , wheat fell by 18%, domestic corn was 2340 yuan per ton, and the international (US) price was less than 1000 yuan. Domestic rice is 4,560 yuan per ton, and the international price is about 2,500 yuan. Domestic wheat is more than 4,000 yuan per ton, and the international price is less than 2,000 yuan. The FOB price in the United States is less than 1/3 the domestic grain price.
National strategic goal: Grains are basically self-sufficient, and food rations are absolutely safe. That is to say, we should focus on me, base ourselves on the country, ensure production capacity, and import moderately. my country is a member of the WTO. The WTO yellow line subsidy price cannot be too high, and it will face complaints if it is too high.
China currently manages corn and wheat quotas. In 2015, the grain import quota was: 9.36 million tons of wheat, 7.2 million tons of corn, and 5.32 million tons of rice. It is necessary to protect farmers and grow grain. Why are food prices so high in our country? Reasons for high food prices: 1. High labor costs 2. Low agricultural productivity, low labor productivity, low resource utilization, and low land productivity. If the state does not limit the purchase price, domestic farmers will not be able to grow grain. my country’s agricultural productivity is low, 47% of the world average, 2% of developed countries, and 1% of the United States and Japan. Compared with China: labor productivity is 100 times that of China, labor land occupation rate is 3,400 times, and the number of laborers is less than 1% of China’s.
In the United States, the agricultural population is less than 2%, but it feeds 300 million Americans, has a lot of food, and is also a major exporter of grains. Two or three people can plant thousands of tons of wheat and corn. There are about 2 million farms in the United States, each with an average area of about 20,000 mu, and an average of 1.6 people per farm of about 20,000 mu. The agricultural population is around 3.5 million. The per capita labor productivity produces 180 tons of grain and 5.5 tons of beef per person per year.
In China, each labor force has about 4.4 mu of land per person. At present, there are about 200 million agricultural laborers. Every year, 10 million people leave the land and go into urbanization. In fact, we have a severe labor shortage. The most serious problem in China at present: who will farm in the future? How to plant? Those who stick to agriculture are called 386160 (38 women, 61 left-behind children, people born in the 1960s). What China needs to reform and reform in farming is the means and methods of farming to improve efficiency.
The pollution of water, fertilizer, soil and land is huge
Farming is inseparable from water and fertilizer. What does our country’s annual bumper harvest rely on to support? It depends on fertilizers and pesticides. The utilization rate of chemical fertilizers in my country is 50% of the international advanced level, and the annual water consumption is 900 cubic meters. More than 40 million tons of chemical fertilizers are used, and 200,000 tons of original drugs are consumed. my country’s total agricultural water consumption is 360 billion cubic meters per year, accounting for 62% of the country’s total water consumption. In 2014, the total amount of chemical fertilizers used in my country was 60 million tons, and these values were the first in the world.
Water my country is the 13th poorest country in the world in terms of water resources, and it is also the country with the most waste of water resources. The annual agricultural waste water consumption is equivalent to more than three times the water of the Yellow River. The surface water of rivers and lakes is basically dry, and now the wells are being drilled from a few meters to several hundred meters. The common people say that water is like oil. How much grain can be produced by one ton of water, according to the professional statement, is the output ratio of water and grain. For example, Heilongjiang is the province with the most developed land resources and relatively high grain production. The output ratio of water and grain in Heilongjiang is 1.5 catties per ton of water. The water grain output ratio of Ningxia wheat is 1.2 catties.